Build Brush Piles For Birds

Last Updated on October 19, 2020 by Nancie

Carolina Wren on Brush Pile
Carolina Wren

One of the nicest gifts you can give the birds in your yard won’t cost you a dime. It’s a brush pile. While we might like to think that birds can eat safely at our backyard feeders, the birds we feed are in turn are often eaten by predators who come to feeders to find them. Brush piles give birds a quick place to flee when a hawk soars through the feeder area or a neighborhood cat saunters by.

White-Throated Sparrow in the Brush Pile
White-Throated Sparrow in the Brush Pile

Benefits of a Brush Pile

Birds can use brush piles in a variety of ways:

  • Retreat from a perceived threat. This could be a predator, more dominant birds, human activity or other loud noise.
  • Source of bugs to eat.
  • Potential nesting spot.
  • Cover during heavy rain or snow.
  • Staging spot to land first before heading over to a nearby feeder.

When birds eating at feeders are startled by something, many will flee to nearby cover. In my yard, if what startled them is a person or a cat, they often hunker down there until the coast is clear. If it is a hawk, they typically fly for higher trees and vines in the back of the yard until the hawk has left.

(Note: There are always a few birds who instead use a freeze in place strategy. They will sit very still at a feeder, not eating, but watching intently until the threat has past.)

I’ve had a number brush piles in my yard over the years. The birds that especially like them tend to be those that spend a lot of time on the ground. Birds in my yard that are in the piles most include:

  • Carolina Wrens
  • Northern Cardinals
  • All types of Sparrows

Keep in mind that brush piles can become home to some birds. Other critters may decide to hang out there as well, some of which birds will eat. Lots of tasty insects will make the brush pile home too. As many birds make insects a big part of their diet, you are actually expanding what you are offering them. You may even attract some birds who don’t otherwise come to bird feeders.

Brush Pile
Brush Pile

How to Build a Brush Pile

A brush pile is easy to make. If you can, aim for a pile of maybe eight to ten feet wide and four or five feet high. (But even a much smaller pile can be helpful to birds and will likely be popular.)

Collect logs, branches and sticks that fall naturally from trees in your yard or that you cut off when pruning trees and shrubs. (If you don’t have enough in your own yard, you might find neighbors willing to share.)

Start with small long logs if you have them or the largest branches you’ve got. Lay them out with about a foot between them. (I usually don’t have eight foot long logs, so I lay shorter ones end-to-end to create the length.) Cover with another layer going perpendicular over the first. Work your way up, putting smaller branches and sticks over the top.

Remember that it doesn’t have to be built in a day. Start with what you have and gradually add to it as you find new branches.

"Orange" cat stalking a squirrel in the brush pile.
“Orange” cat stalking a squirrel in a brush pile.

Keeping Cats Out of Piles

In my neighborhood, there are a lot of wandering cats who are drawn to all the birds in my yard. A year or so ago, a few cats tried a new strategy of hiding inside the nearest brush pile to catch unsuspecting birds.

To keep cats out of this pile, I used two strategies of my own. First, I stood branches along the edges tepee-style to screen larger openings. Aim to leave gaps large enough for birds to get into but not so large that a cat could hide inside. This only partially works though. As birds and squirrels land on the pile and cats try to push in, branches shift. So you need to keep an eye on it.

Second, I eventually surrounded this particular pile with green metal mesh garden fencing. Birds could zip in and out of the mesh but cats stopped getting into the pile.

Carolina Wren, Two White-Throated Sparrows and a Dark-Eyed Junco in the Brush Pile
Carolina Wren, White-Throated Sparrows and a Dark-Eyed Junco in Brush Pile

Topping Off the Pile

If you include some evergreen branches over the top of the pile, maybe from a Christmas tree or wreath or from fallen pine branches, it makes the cover a little denser and more protected inside. But don’t use things like fallen leaves or garden refuse that will mat down and fill in the openings. You want it to be honeycombed with open spaces.

The pile will settle over time. Leaves will blow in, and squirrels may gnaw on and/or move around some of the branches. Just continue to add branches over time as you find them fallen in your yard. Eventually after a few years, the pile will probably have settled too much. Then you may want to tear the pile apart and rebuild it.

Dark-Eyed Juncos and White-Throated Sparrows Near Brush Pile
Dark-Eyed Juncos and White-Throated Sparrows Near Brush Pile

Locating the Pile

You want the pile to be a short flight away from feeders, but not so close that a predator can lurk right next to a feeder, unseen. My nearest brush pile was very close to feeders. This eventually caused some problems with predatory cats and aggressive House Sparrows.

This taught me not to build a brush pile immediately next to bird feeders. Be especially careful about putting them too close to ground feeders or areas where birds are often on the ground eating spilled seed. Several feet away is good, but I’d aim for about ten feet or so away from feeders. That is enough space to make a lurking cat more obvious. And it would make it just a little less tempting for House Sparrows to get too comfortable.

Keep in mind that some communities might not allow brush piles. And some neighbors might not like them in view of their windows. I like the rustic look of a brush pile, but if your yard is more manicured or you don’t want to offend neighbors, you might plant native vines to cover it.

Cardinal and Other Birds in a Wisteria Tangle with a Small Beginning Brush Pile
Cardinal and Other Birds in a Wisteria Tangle with a Small Beginning Brush Pile

Other Types of Natural Cover

In our yard, we’ve struggled with invasive Japanese Wisteria for decades. (It was there when we moved in.) This plant is incredibly aggressive. It puts out rooted runners that will try to take over every inch of space, strangling trees and shrubs in the process. (If you see it in a garden center, trust me, DON’T be tempted!)

The wisteria does have its benefits to backyard birds though. If left unchecked, wisteria (and other invasive or, much better, native vines) can create a natural tangle that creates cover for birds. In my yard, Northern Cardinals, various sparrows and finches in particular seem to love wisteria for that reason. We keep trying to pull it out and get rid of it regardless, but it goes to show that everything has its up side.

House Sparrows on Brush Pile
House Sparrows on Brush Pile

House Sparrows and Brush Piles

Brush piles, while popular with birds, do have their downsides. Our yard is full of mature trees that are always dropping branches. So we’ve had a number of brush piles over the years. This was always a very positive thing for birds . . . until this past winter.

We’ve never had a lot of House Sparrows in the yard over many years of feeding birds. But last winter, several discovered the yard and told all their friends. House Sparrows can be very aggressive about taking over feeders and pushing other birds out. I started noticing fewer of the over-wintering White-Throated Sparrows that I love because of the increasing numbers of House Sparrows. And I was worried about them attacking bluebirds in the spring when nesting started.

House Sparrows seem to be very cover dependent. To get rid of the House Sparrows, I sadly eventually had to get rid of the brush piles nearest to my feeders.

One large brush pile still remains in a back corner of the yard. I still have a few much, much smaller open piles of branches less than a foot high near feeders and edging pathways in more wooded areas. While they don’t provide much cover, they still are very attractive bug hunting spots for backyard birds.

It is important to realize that nothing stays the same forever. Things change in the back yard and you need to adapt and change with it.

Learn More About Brush Piles

Here are a few good articles on brush piles you might find interesting:

Deterring House Sparrows


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8 thoughts on “Build Brush Piles For Birds

  1. Great article, Nancie.
    My trumpet vines (1 yellow & 1 orange) run rampant. I’ve got it ( ‘trained’) tied to two old telephone poles. The hummers fit inside the trumpets. Other birds love to feast on the ants it attracts. It’s great protection up until the foliage is gone. I mow the darn shoots in the lawn. I think I might root some while building a brush pile around it near my stonewall fence.

    1. Very cool. I want to plant more in my garden and yard this spring to attract hummingbirds as well as berry eating birds. We have wisteria run rampant in our yard (which is not something I would recommend to anyone.) The wisteria is pretty when it blooms but is not native and it also gets into EVERYTHING, with runners out across the lawn and up (and around) trees. Can’t seem to get ahead of it. That said, the birds absolutely love the wisteria tangle. Even in the winter it provides enough cover to make them feel pretty safe there, so I’ve left that area alone for them.

  2. We have several large brush piles from clearing and they are filled with Juncos. We need to get them burned down for getting ready for our garden but want to wait until the eggs/nestlings are done. I have read that incubation is around two weeks and nestlings another two weeks. But can’t find approximately when they should be done so that everyone is out safely. Any advice?

    1. Hi Lina,

      Oh wow! Where I live, juncos are winter time birds only. They leave my area around mid-April to head up to north of us to breed. (There are only a few stragglers left now at the end of April here in Maryland.) So I’ve never had the chance to see them nesting or their fledglings. My understanding though is that they can have anywhere from one to three broods of babies per year. So it is really hard to say exactly when they will all be finished. This Nest Watch site at Cornell might be helpful though

  3. Thank you for the prompt response. They come every year and we probably have a hundred or more hanging around. I have been trying to find the gap (when first broods are done) and before they start the second and learned that they don’t reuse the nests thankfully. We will create several new piles in the trees for them to move into alternatively, but these are very large piles that need to go. I will check out the website you included. Thanks so much.

    1. Hi Lina, What I’m thinking is that while they probably all started out around the same time, the broods probably won’t begin and end on the same day. So things may be staggered with some finished and some still there. I’m not sure how much time there is between broods either. I do wonder if the folks at Cornell Lab of Ornithology can help you out with that info. Good luck! Nancie

  4. All said is good for nature. I’ve created large brush piles. The one by stream bed is favorite hunting ground for our resident owls. They find it a great resource.

    1. Hi Tom,
      That must be really interesting to have owls nearby. It does make sense though that they would like the brush piles. I imagine there are all kinds of interesting critters living or eating in the brush pile that might interest an owl.

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